D-Pad (Direction Pad)
A circular- or square-shaped pad that provides navigation keys for the four directions: up, down, left and right. These are the equivalent of the “arrow keys” on a computer keyboard and are used for navigating the user interface.
An enhanced version of the D-pad called an 8-way D-pad allows for scrolling diagonally as well.
Some D-Pads have a center button usually called “select” or “OK”. It is used to select a highlighted item in the user interface.
DC-HSDPA (Dual Carrier or Dual Cell High-Speed Downlink Packet Access)
HSDPA technology has its limits and to further enhance its performance, the DC-HSDPA technology was introduced.
An advanced HSDPA+ network can theoretically support up to 28 Mbit/s and 42 Mbit/s with a single 5 MHz carrier. Doubling the bandwidth to 10MHz results in theoretically, double the sustained data rate.
Zoom is a feature common among cameras and is used to make the subject appear closer. Cameras on mobile phones often have a zoom feature as well but most often it is digital zoom.
Digital zoom is implemented in one of two ways:
Cropping – the software crops the image so that the subject would appear bigger on the screen of the phone but the resulting image is smaller than the maximum resolution of the camera. The photo of the subject does not have any more detail than a non-cropped photo would.
Stretching – this is similar to cropping but instead it stretches the cropped photo to the selected resolution. Since the stretching is done by an algorithm that uses just the information from the cropped photo no additional detail is visible.
There are lot of display types used in mobile phones. They can be either color or monochrome. Monochrome displays on the other hand can be alphanumeric or graphic. Alphanumeric displays can show only symbols with a constant size, while graphic displays can show fonts of different sizes and animations.
The color displays usually are CSTN, TFT, TFD or OLED with a predominant use of TFT displays in current mobile lineups. There are also two types of touchscreen displays – capacitive and resistive, which are both based on TFT technology.
CAPACITIVE touchscreens work by sensing the electrical properties of the human body, while RESISTIVE ones operate by sensing direct pressure applied by the user.
The RESISTIVE type can be activated by pressing not only with human skin but also with a stylus and thus allow handwriting recognition input.
DLNA (Digital Living Network Alliance)
DLNA refers to both an organization and the technology they created.
The DLNA standard is used for sharing music, photos and video over an existing home network.
For example, by using DLNA you could stream video from your phone to a compatible TV-set using a Wi-Fi network.
DNSe (Digital Natural Sound engine)
DNSe or the Digital Natural Sound engine is a DSP audio enhancement technology developed by Samsung in 2003 and further on implemented throughout many of their product lineups – from TVs and DVD players to portable music players and lately – mobile phones.
DNIe (Digital Natural Image engine)
DNIe is used in Samsung plasma and high definition television sets (HDTV). Purportedly, DNIe offers better detail than conventional televisions by using four proprietary processes that optimize and enhance image quality: a Motion Optimizer, a Contrast Enhancer, a Detail Enhancer, and a Color Optimizer.
The one-way connection from a server (such as the cellular network) to the user device (such as a mobile phone).
Mobile phones typically utilize a two-way connection consisting of downlink and uplink (the connection from the user device to the server) which is asymmetrical – that is, the downlink is much faster than the uplink.
DRM (Digital Rights Management)
Manages the use of copyright-protected data such as music, graphics, videos etc.
For example, DRM can prohibit you sending a downloaded media file to other media such as CD, DVD, or even PC.
Mobile phone networks work using signals on specific frequency bands and a phone must support those bands in order to work with the network. Dual-band refers to the phones ability to work with two different bands. It is important to specify which bands exactly.
Networks in different geographical locations work on different bands – GSM networks in the Americas use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands while networks in Europe, Brazil, Asia and Africa use the 900/1800 MHz bands.
For example an 900/1800 dual-band phone won’t work in the US and an 850/1900 phone won’t work in Europe. A 900/1900 phone should work on at least one network in most countries around the world.
A dual-mode phone is a phone capable of sending/receiving data in two different ways. For example, a dual-mode phone could support both GSM and CDMA.
This specifies whether a device is capable of supporting two SIM cards. The two major types of dual-SIM phones are active and standby. Dual-SIM Standby (DSS) requires the user to specify which of the two SIMs is able to make and receive calls, while Dual-SIM Active (DSA) enables both cards to receive calls at the same time. This latter feature usually requires an additional transceiver for the secondary SIM card, and as such consumes more battery life. More recent models feature Dual SIM Dual Standby (DSDS) technology which enables them to have two active SIMs with only one transceiver.
DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting – Handheld)
A European standard specifically for the broadcasting of television content to hand-held devices based on DVB-T.
As of 2007, live trial runs of DVB-H have started in many European countries, as well as other countries around the world.
A way or organizing different types of data in the phone’s memory. Also referred to as Shared memory.
Dynamic memory means that all types of data are stored in the same memory (there is no separate memory for photos, ringtones etc.).
An advantage of dynamic memory over partitioned memory is that it is more flexible – with partitioned memory, you can fill up the photo memory for example and you won’t be able to take any more photos even if other types of memory are free.
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